Conclusion

Central Park was created in response to unprecedented urbanization and its impact on the people of New York City, with particular emphasis on the needs of children. The twentieth-century addition of discrete playgrounds to the Park was motivated by similar urban pressures, and by continued concern for New York’s youngest citizens. From the time the playgrounds were created during the first half of the twentieth century, some defenders of the Park’s essential purpose have viewed them as encroachments on a landscape designed as a rural retreat from urban life. However, Frederick Law Olmsted, Calvert Vaux, the Park’s Board of Commissioners, and others recognized the needs of young people and accommodated them from the start. Their democratic vision for the Park included nurturing children, the group that represented all New Yorkers and the very future of the City. The original Children’s District was distinguished from the rest of the Park by the prevalence of amenities for children and the designation of areas for their recreation. But this was encompassed within the broader design of the Park as a whole. Like the rest of the Park, the Children’s District comprised a composition of meadows, water, rugged topography, and rustic structures.

The playgrounds added to the Park in the twentieth century rigidly separated children’s active recreation from the greater Park. One of the original motivations described in connection with the creation of the system of perimeter playgrounds was the resolution of conflicting uses. Providing children with spaces set aside exclusively for their intensive recreational use would spare the balance of the Park from further damage. This thinking led to the creation of a system of marginal playgrounds that, by design, was disconnected from the greater Park. As specialized, equipment-filled facilities, they were spatially and programmatically removed from the unstructured environment around them. Like other amenities added during that time, these playgrounds extended an urban character into the Park.

Better integrating the playgrounds in the Park has been a consistent goal of the Conservancy’s work. Toward that end, every reconstruction in the last five years has reconsidered the nature and configuration of the boundaries between them. But addressing the lack of connection requires more than modifying the playground’s footprint or manipulating its edge. It requires that the inward focus of the playgrounds be redirected to the Park as a natural extension of the playground experience. Central Park’s playgrounds are unique due to their location in the Park. Part of incorporating them more fully in the larger landscape is cultivating the public perception of the landscape as not just as a scenic backdrop, but another type of playground. The Park offers a remarkable setting for a range of children’s play and activities. Enjoyment of nature and scenery contributes to the development of a sense of place and well-being in young people. The technological revolution has prompted a renewed focus on humans and nature and, specifically, its value for children. Yet again, the Park’s essential purpose has demonstrated its timelessness.

The ongoing evolution of playgrounds is a testament to the indispensable role of play in childhood as well as their function as public gathering places. They were invented to provide safe, social places for children. Despite generational variations in design, this fundamental purpose for their existence has not changed. Addressing Central Park’s twenty-one playgrounds in the context of their history and relationship to the Park demands a consistent and comprehensive approach to their design and management. Improving each of them to reach the same standard of excellence at the same time will be an important investment in their longevity and in the next generation of New Yorkers.